Review的Review

2017.06.11

Anthropology, China, and the Chinese CenturyPDF链接(dropbox)
Frank N. Pieke
Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 2014. 43:123–38
doi:10.1146/annurev-anthro-102313-030149

作为一篇接续郝瑞(Steven Harrell)2001年评述人类学中国研究的文章,本文视野宽泛,态度也称得上中肯。文中收录包括张鹂、阎云翔、吴飞、萧凤霞等国人熟知华人学者,也有凯博文、冯姝娣、王斯福等国际大佬。人类学的中国时代是否就此开启不好说,但对于这样一种矛盾与张力共存,多元同异质同生的当代中国社会而言,本文所做的综述很好地总结与指出了人类学中国研究的方向。作为绝大多数都是“土著研究土著”的中国人类学从业者来说,理清思路并少走弯路是需要时刻放在心上的。
全文从弗里德曼(Maurice Freedman)“中国阶段(Chinese Phase)”的论述开始,展现了当代人类学研究已越来越多地和中国相关,并且与中国相关的人类学研究也逐渐整合进了世界人类学。
An increasing number of them return to an academic career in China, gradually integrating Chinese anthropology into world anthropology.
在改革开放之前有关大陆的人类学研究屈指可数,于是港澳台与海外华人的相关研究就构成了中国人类学主要部分,这在郝瑞的文章中也有提到。但就目前来看,特别是作者认为计划经济政策的终结和中国加入WTO使得中国社会充满了生机,当下的中国社会越来越被全球化、跨国交流与国际政治所影响。
Chinese society began to be shaped by processes of globalization, transnationalism, and cosmopolitanism to a degree never seen before.
当然,党国一体的体制也作为一种中国特色型塑着当下社会的具体形态
the country and the nation as a whole were very much present in PRC-based fieldwork studies.
而对于这样一种环境下的中国人类学研究而言,问题意识也就渐渐趋向于
change, modernization, and the tensions among socialist governance, market economy, and traditional culture also emerged in these new studies.
而新的社会组织形式与新的生活方式的出现所带来人们社会生活形态的转变,也就成为了人类学中国研究的主要方向,如对个人、家庭、团体、组织以及企业的研究,之前探讨国家支配或是社会颠覆的论述也已经被行动者在社会、国家与经济体中的竞争、合作与适应所取代。
New forms of social organization and ways of life have emerged. Grasping the opportunities and negotiating the risks of life are no longer the concern of the state, but the responsibility of individuals, families, communities, organizations, and enterprises. With these changes, the master narrative of dominance versus subversion has been replaced by competition, accommodation, and adaptation among a range of local, national, and transnational actors that operate in society, the state, and the economy.
所以相比前人所作的努力(在大陆以外),我们现在必须将着眼点放在全球化、公民以及克里奥尔化(creolization)过程之中。
Where our predecessors tried to distill the essence of unspoiled Chinese culture from rural Taiwan and Hong Kong, we must now focus on globalizing, civilizing, and creolization processes, both in China and elsewhere, in which Chinese culture is one of the ingredients. The challenge now is to understand China as a changing composite of elements, rather than as a natural unit that is interwoven with, while being separate from, other areas of the world.
从具体研究来看,在中国问题主导(issue driven)的研究已慢慢超越以范式、理论或某种支配性叙述主导的研究,田野工作也渐渐有了问题导向、立足城市以及多点研究(multisite)的特点。
The new realities of life in China have fundamentally reshaped the anthropology of modern China. No longer is China anthropology dominated by one clear paradigm, narrative, or group of dominant scholars. Fieldwork has become more issue driven, city based, and multisited than before. Research is also much more specialized in a particular aspect of Chinese society.
接着作者列举了新世纪以来中国人类学研究的七个方面进行评述,分别是:

  • 新社会秩序(Social Order)
    • Individualization(阎云翔)
    • single children、inequality between men and women
    • volunteer、responsibility
  • 身处风险社会(Living in a risk society)
    • environment、pollution
    • risk, health, well-being, and safety
    • authority and govenment
  • 政治和政府(Politics and Government)
    • a mix of authoritarian paternalism and neoliberal governance strategies and techniques
    • Housing and city planning
    • “building of a new socialist countryside” (新农村建设)
    • 传统治理手段复兴
  • 人口、政府与科技(Population, Government, and Science)
    • The CCP has always had a mission to transform, not just rule, China.
    • Mandatory family
    • 科教兴国
    • “文明”建设
  • 阶级、消费与归属(Classes, Consumption, and Belonging)
    • term “stratum” over “class” to describe China’s new inequalities.
    • education
    • religion
  • 国家控制与国家主义(Nation Building and Nationalism)
    • media
    • internet
  • 新旧差异(Old and New Diversities)
    • minority
    • identity
    • cultural heritage
    • ethnicity and nation-state
    • migrants between urban and rural
    • transnation marriage
    • cosmopolitan

我在此并不想逐一列举论述,因为那样还不如直接翻译,想用一种关键词导向的方式勾勒文章作者的观点,毕竟真读还需靠自己。
最后,作者也谈论了中国人类学研究的一些问题和展望
在学理上: China anthropologists make few conceptual or theoretical contributions of which anthropologists working in other areas take note, let alone adapt and develop.
在世界体系背景下:China's new global prominence means that anthropologists will have to find ways of thinking and writing about a society that is much more than just another culture. As a global power, China not only self-consciously draws on its remembered civilization to realize the wish to be in charge of its own version of modernity independently from Western civilizers.
在责任和使命上: anthropologists of China will bear ethnographic witness to global processes of domination, expansion, and exploitation from the vantage point of a newly emerging center.
在文化(文明)比较上: Explicitly teasing out the continuities and transformations of Chinese civilization and globalization will allow anthropologists to make ethnographically informed comparisons with other civilizing projects. 重点是what is special and not so special about China today
一些更高级的愿望:The orientalizing quest for the essential aspects of China continues to generate a ready demand for bite-sized nuggets of Chinese culture. It is one of the major tasks of anthropology to debunk such generalizations.

以及鸡汤:When we add to these strengths a willingness to embed our analysis in long-term civilizing and globalization processes, China anthropology has good reason to be confident of its contribution to debates both within and outside anthropology.

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